Parental Involvment

The main purpose of this study was to define and conceptualize the term parental involvement. A questionnaire was administrated to parents (140), teachers (145), students (120) and high ranking civil servants in the Ministry of Education (30). Responses were analyzed through Smallest Space Analysis (SSA). The SSA solution among all groups rendered a two dimensional solution with a coefficient of alienation . 18. The SSA map clearly divided 44 parental activities into four quadrants.

The left and right regents represent the focus of parental activity: The left regent represents in-school activities and the right side represents out-school activities. The upper and lower regents represent the organizational level: The upper regent represents organizational based activities and the lower regent represents student-based activities. The initial findings also demonstrated that parental involvement can be defined by the 44 actions, which are deployed on the SSA map in a polarized facet. The facet includes four elements (separation index 1.00): Resources, school welfare, control processes and pedagogical and wellbeing contents. We now have a better understanding of what constitutes school-related parental involvement; we know that it reflects a broad spectrum of parental actions and activities, which can take place either at school or outside the school. The involvement can be expressed actively or passively, often relating to the school as an organization and often in the personal context of one's own child.